e Chief Economist (2007- May 2008) of the Ministry of Budget and Planning – Brazil. From 2004 to 2006, he was the Deputy-Finance Minister, in charge of International Affairs, Ministry of Finance – Brazil. Before that (2000- 2004) he was Advisor to the Chief Economist of the World Bank, Washington DC (USA). In 1999- 2000 in was a Visiting Scholar, Institute of Fiscal and Monetary Policy (IFMP) of the Ministry of Finance, Tokyo (Japan) and (1996-1999) Director, Country Risk and Economic Analysis Department at The Export-Import Bank of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). He holds a PhD in Economics and a Master Degree in Philosophy from the University of Paris 1 (Sorbonne), and graduated from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales (HEC) and the Institut d'Etudes Politiques (Science-Po) both in Paris (France).